Energy and nutrient modelling of human evolution

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dc.contributor.author McGill, Anne-Thea en
dc.contributor.author Wake, G en
dc.contributor.author Beedle, Alan en
dc.coverage.spatial Sydney, Australia en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-04-04T20:00:49Z en
dc.date.issued 2010-10 en
dc.identifier.citation Australia and New Zealand Obesity Society Annual Scientific Meeting (ANZOS ASM). Obesity Research and Clinical Practice Vol 4 Suppl 1 page S28, (Poster, Abstract Number P56. Oct 2010 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/16739 en
dc.description.abstract ENERGY AND NUTRIENT MODELLING OF HUMAN EVOLUTION Background. During evolution, human encephalisation resulted in high energy use by the large brain in proportion to the body. Adaptations to increase energy intake or reduce total body energy to redress this imbalance may have involved 1) highly developed neural appetite pathways including the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic self -reward system to enhance energy dense food intake 2) an expensive tissue trade off including a short adaptable gut that relies on a higher energy omnivorous diet 3) slow growth and development and thus careful preservation of cellular integrity to reduce oxidative stress and allow longevity 4) inhibition/alteration of energy expensive vitamin and co-factor synthesis and a dependence on the wide variety of food micronutrients. It appears that many such food micronutrients are modulating cellular energy use, and that micronutrient quality must be built into energy requirements. Concurrently, humans were developing technologies such as tool use and fire to further expand food quality and quantity. However, the neural self reward aspect systems pushed technology to favour high and secure energy yields. Animal husbandry and plant crop farming lead to selective breeding for high fat, starch and sugar produce, at the expense of micronutrient variety and volume. Once technology progressed to factory farming, and mechanised and chemical food processing systems, proportions of food micronutrients/macronutrients were markedly altered. Humans are driven to consume addictive energy dense foodstuffs but (unconsciously) neglect to acquire adequate micronutrient volumes. They are forced to attempt to store the energy firstly safely in subcutaneous adipose, then centrally around viscera, and finally in non-adipose cells where glycolipotoxicity occurs. Aims: We plan to start developing new dynamic energy equations, with reference to Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models for other biological systems. Ultimately, the ‘ideal’ prehistoric fit and healthy, lean hunter-gatherer will be compared with the contemporary sedentary and (metabolically) degenerate, obese ‘westernised-diet’ consuming human. Method: Principles of DEB and mathematical modelling of energy use will be reviewed with respect to human metabolism and different diets. en
dc.relation.ispartof Australia and New Zealand Obesity Society Annual Scientific Meeting (ANZOS ASM). Obesity Research and Clinical Practice Vol 4 Suppl 1 page S28, (Poster, Abstract Number P56 en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Obesity Research and Clinical Practice Vol 4 Suppl 1 page S28, (Poster, Abstract Number P56Obesity Research and Clinical Practice Vol 4 Suppl 1 page S28, (Poster, Abstract Number P56 en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.title Energy and nutrient modelling of human evolution en
dc.type Conference Poster en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.orcp.2010.09.055 en
pubs.begin-page S27 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: Elsevier en
pubs.end-page S28 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RestrictedAccess en
pubs.elements-id 194999 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2010-12-08 en


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