Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-mediated impairment of glucose transport in adipocytes

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dc.contributor.advisor Prins, J en
dc.contributor.advisor Whitehead, J en Ngo, Sherry en 2012-05-13T22:17:47Z en 2008-08 en
dc.identifier.citation Sub type: PhD Thesis. Supervisors: Prins J, Whitehead J. University of Queensland, Aug 2008 en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract Glucocorticoids are widely used in clinical therapy. However, they cause adverse effects including insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, which are characterised by decreased glucose transport into the muscles and fat. How glucocorticoids inhibit glucose transport remains unclear. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake via the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 / phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) pathway and promotes the redistribution of GLUT4 from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane (PM). Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), a Rab-GTPase activating protein is downstream of AKT and appears to be essential for exposure of GLUT4 at the PM and glucose uptake. This is mediated through the association of phosphorylated AS160 (at the key residue T642) with 14-3-3 in the cytosol. The mildly insulin-responsive GLUT1 mediates basal glucose uptake in adipocytes. It is also subject to regulated trafficking like GLUT4. This study aimed to determine the level at which glucocorticoids inhibit glucose uptake in adipocytes. Effects of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and the natural glucocorticoid cortisol, on GLUT1 and GLUT4 function were examined. Candidates for the glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of GLUT1- and GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake were investigated. These were glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β (an AKT substrate) for GLUT1-mediated glucose transport; and adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 (an AKT-interacting protein) and AS160 for GLUT4-mediated glucose transport. Dex and cortisol significantly decreased basal glucose uptake by 50% (p<0.05) in SGBS and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was decreased by 50% (p<0.001 for SGBS; p<0.05 for 3T3-L1) and 30% (p<0.05 for both) at 1 nM and 100 nM insulin respectively. Similar results were observed with differentiated primary human preadipocytes and human adipose explants. Dex-mediated inhibition of basal glucose uptake was limited to insulin-sensitive cell types implying that glucocorticoids may regulate GLUTs at steps common to GLUT1 and GLUT4 trafficking. Dex-mediated reduction in glucose uptake correlated with the reduction in basal and insulin-stimulated expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the PM without changes in total GLUT1/4 expression. Dex did not alter total expression or phosphorylation of proximal insulin-signalling molecules up to and including AKT but increased FOXO1 expression, and modified GSK3β-S9 phosphorylation. Dex did not alter total APPL1 expression or subcellular distribution. Dex significantly decreased 1nM-insulin stimulated AS160-T642 phosphorylation by 50% (p<0.05) in SGBS and 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the glucocorticoid repector (GR). This correlated with reduced AS160:14-3-3 interaction. Similar results were obtained for AS160-T642 basal phosphorylation. At 1nM insulin, AS160-T642 phosphorylation is maximal at sub-maximal glucose uptake, i.e. AS160 phosphorylation significantly contributes to glucose uptake. RU486 significantly prevented but did not fully abrogate the Dex-mediated reduction in glucose uptake suggesting additional Dex-induced defects. In conclusion, glucocorticoids inhibit glucose uptake at a level distal to AKT by GR-dependent mechanisms. A role for GSK3β or APPL1 in glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake requires further investigations. FOXO1 represents a suitable candidate for mediating the Dex-induced defects. Of significance, perturbation in AS160-T642 phosphorylation contributes to Dex-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake. Thus, AS160 presents a novel therapeutic target in the improvement of glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake. en
dc.publisher University of Queensland en
dc.relation.ispartof PhD Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.title Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-mediated impairment of glucose transport in adipocytes en
dc.type Thesis en University of Queensland en Doctoral en PhD en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en en
dc.rights.accessrights en
pubs.elements-id 100126 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2010-09-01 en

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