Tidal stream energy extraction in a large deep strait: the Karori Rip, Cook Strait

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dc.contributor.author Stevens, CL en
dc.contributor.author Smith, MJ en
dc.contributor.author Grant, B en
dc.contributor.author Stewart, CL en
dc.contributor.author Divett, T en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-06-26T00:11:42Z en
dc.date.available 2012-06-26T00:11:42Z en
dc.date.issued 2012 en
dc.identifier.citation Continental Shelf Research 33:100-109 2012 en
dc.identifier.issn 0278-4343 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/19140 en
dc.description.abstract Successful extraction of tidal stream energy will require a good understanding of flow at a range of scales, including those relating to average energy, variability in energy supply and fatigue. Current and turbulence measurements from the Karori Rip area of Cook Strait, the prime focal region of open-water tidal stream electricity generation in New Zealand, are described. A key issue is that a significant portion of the energy is contained in waters deeper than normally considered for energy extraction. Here we compare shallow and deep sites. Velocity data were derived from acoustic Doppler current profiler moorings, as well as spatial surveys and show flow magnitudes reaching 3.4 m s−1 in the shallow regions. The maximum speeds in both shallow and deep sites were typically located in the upper part of the measured water column although moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations showed some complexity in this regard. Benthic boundary-layers were resolved in the bottom ∼20 m of the water column. Measured turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates ε exceeded 10−5 m2 s−3 and estimated maximum ε is a factor of 10 greater. This was not distributed evenly through the water column, with stratification and velocity shear clearly persisting, especially around the turn of the tide. The implications for tidal stream energy are that (i) there is sufficient energy resource in the region for a moderate sized array of turbines, (ii) the vertical variability in the flow speed suggests turbines that can operate near the surface would be more effective at accessing the resource, (iii) stratification may persist and influence the scales of turbulence and (iv) wave–current interaction effects will influence any near-surface structure as well as vessel operations. en
dc.publisher Elsevier Ltd. en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Continental Shelf Research en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.source.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2011.11.012 en
dc.title Tidal stream energy extraction in a large deep strait: the Karori Rip, Cook Strait en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.csr.2011.11.012 en
pubs.begin-page 100 en
pubs.volume 33 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: Elsevier Ltd. en
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pubs.end-page 109 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RestrictedAccess en
pubs.elements-id 357108 en
pubs.org-id Faculty of Science en
pubs.org-id Physics en

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