Growth, development and visual ontogeny of two temperate reef teleosts Pagrus auratus, (Sparidae) and Forsterygion varium, (Tripterygiidae)

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dc.contributor.advisor John Montgomery en Pankhurst, Patricia Melva en 2007-11-01T01:05:13Z en 2007-11-01T01:05:13Z en 1991 en
dc.identifier.citation Thesis (PhD--Zoology)--University of Auckland, 1991. en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract Growth, development and behaviour were examined in artificially reared larval Pagrus auratus and Forsterygion varium, from the time of hatching. Yolk-sac larval P.auratus hatched at a small size (2.00mm SL), without functional eyes, mouth or digestive tract, and for three days spent long periods at rest. Growth was initially rapid but slowed by 3 days as yolk reserves neared depletion. By days 4-5, the mouth had opened, eyes were functional, yolk was depleted, and a rudimentary gut had formed. Larvae were now able to maintain a horizontal swimming mode and were actively searching for and attacking prey. First feeding was observed in some larvae. Growth was retarded during the transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition and then increased as feeding proficiency improved. Yolk-sac F.varium hatched at a larger size (4.78mm SL), with functional eyes and jaws. Larvae were able to maintain a horizontal swimming mode from hatching. First feeding was observed from the first day after hatching. F.varium larvae grew steadily from the time of hatching. Ocular morphology was examined in larval, juvenile and adult P.auratus and F.varium. There was a 96 fold increase in eye size, from 0.23mm diameter in a 4 day old larval P.auratus (3.4mm SL) to a maximum diameter of 22mm in an adult of 333mm body length. F.varium displayed a 26 fold increase in eye size, from 0.28mm diameter in the smallest larva (5.00mm SL) to a maximum eye diameter of 7.2mm in a 11gmm long adult. Larval fish had pure cone retinae, however putative rod precursor cells were present from hatching in F.varium and from 18 days in P.auratus. Juvenile and adult fish had duplex retinae with cones arranged in a square mosaic in which 4 twin cones surround a central single cone. Hypertrophy of cone ellipsoids with increasing eye size, resulted in maintenance of a closely packed array in fishes of all sizes. The appearance of retinomotor movements was coincident with the development of a duplex retina in both species. Theoretical spatial acuity (calculated as a function of cone spacing and focal length of the lens) was poor in the smallest larval fish (2° 1' and 1° 8' minimum separable angle in 4 and 1 day old P.auratus and F.varium respectively) but improved to asymptotic values in adults (3'- 4', and 9' in P.auratus and F.varium respectively). Behavioural acuity (determined using the optokinetic response) of 4 day old larval P.auratus (37° 30') and 1 day old F.varium (29°) was very much lower than histological estimates. Behavioural acuity improved to 8° 8' in 16 day old P.auratus and 4° 18' in 14 day old F.varium, but did not attain theoretical estimates for fish of that size (55' and 54'). A rudimentary retractor lentis muscle was first apparent in larval fish 1 week after hatching, and was coincident with the formation of a posterior lental space. Presumably larval fish eyes were incapable of accomodative lens movements until this time. A relative measure of Matthiessen's ratio (distance from lens centre to boundary of the pigmented retinal epithelium/lens radius) measured histologically, decreased from 4.2 and 2.7 in 3 day old P.auratus and newly hatched F.varium, to 2.2 and 2.3 in larvae 22 and 16 days of age respectively. This suggests that growth of the retina and lens were not symmetrical in the eyes of very small larval fish. If Matthiessen's ratio holds for little eyes, then they will initially be strongly myopic. This may account in part for the mismatch between behavioural and theoretical acuity. Perceptive distances of first feeding larval P.auratus and F.varium, estimated for prey items equal in dimensions to maximum jaw widths, were very small (0.2mm and 0.4mm for prey 0.15mm and 0.2mm in size respectively), but increased with increasing body size to 2.1mm and 4.0mm for prey 0.3mm in size, at 16 and 14 days of age respectively. These data have implications for larval feeding in the wild. en
dc.format Scanned from print thesis en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher ResearchSpace@Auckland en
dc.relation.ispartof PhD Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.relation.isreferencedby UoA443072 en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.title Growth, development and visual ontogeny of two temperate reef teleosts Pagrus auratus, (Sparidae) and Forsterygion varium, (Tripterygiidae) en
dc.type Thesis en Zoology en The University of Auckland en Doctoral en PhD en
dc.subject.marsden Fields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270500 Zoology en
dc.subject.marsden Fields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270700 Ecology and Evolution::270702 Marine and estuarine ecology (incl. marine ichthyology) en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
pubs.local.anzsrc 0608 - Zoology en Faculty of Science en

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