The effects of post-term birth, hyperemesis gravidarum, and birth order on childhood metabolism and body composition

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dc.contributor.advisor Cutfield, W en
dc.contributor.advisor Hofman, P en
dc.contributor.author Ayyavoo, Ahila en
dc.date.accessioned 2013-12-12T20:06:50Z en
dc.date.issued 2013-12-11 en
dc.date.submitted 2013-06-12 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/21253 en
dc.description.abstract Background: There is increasing evidence that early life events have major implications for health in later life. For example, studies at Liggins Institute have shown adverse metabolic outcomes in children and adults born small-for-gestational-age or preterm. In this thesis, glucose homeostasis and body composition (amongst other assessments) were evaluated in three under-explored groups of children, i.e. those i) born post-term (≥42 weeks gestation), ii) born of mothers who suffered from severe hyperemesis gravidarum, and iii) first-borns. Participants: Healthy pre-pubertal children, aged 4–11 years, naturally conceived, born of singleton pregnancies and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age (birth weight >-2 and <2 standard deviation scores), recruited in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods: Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Other assessments included body composition from wholebody dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, fasting hormonal concentrations and lipid profiles, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and inflammatory markers. Results: We found that i) post-term children had a 34% reduction in insulin sensitivity in comparison to controls born at term, and also displayed a number of early markers of the metabolic syndrome; ii) children born to mothers who experienced severe hyperemesis gravidarum had insulin sensitivity that was 20% lower than that of controls; and iii) although first-born children were taller and slimmer, these children had a 27% reduction in insulin sensitivity and higher daytime blood pressure compared to later-borns. Conclusions: We have identified three common groups of children (those born post-term, born of mothers who suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, and first-borns) who are likely to be at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Therefore, long-term follow up of these groups into adulthood is important, so that potential long-term adverse health effects can be better evaluated. en
dc.publisher ResearchSpace@Auckland en
dc.relation.ispartof PhD Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/nz/ en
dc.title The effects of post-term birth, hyperemesis gravidarum, and birth order on childhood metabolism and body composition en
dc.type Thesis en
thesis.degree.grantor The University of Auckland en
thesis.degree.level Doctoral en
thesis.degree.name PhD en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The Author en
pubs.author-url http://hdl.handle.net/2292/21253 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.elements-id 418190 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2015-01-12 en


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