Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: Is cadmium a likely cause?

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dc.contributor.author Wanigasuriya, KP en
dc.contributor.author Peiris-John, Roshini en
dc.contributor.author Wickremasinghe, R en
dc.date.accessioned 2014-01-10T01:24:51Z en
dc.date.issued 2011 en
dc.identifier.citation BMC Nephrology 12(32):7 pages 2011 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/21372 en
dc.description.abstract Background: The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods. Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males) from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results: Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p < 0.001), alcohol use (p = 0.003), hypertension (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (UTI) (p = 0.034) and consumption of water from wells in the fields (p = 0.025) were associated with microalbuminuria. In the binary logistic regression analysis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, drinking well water in the fields, smoking and pesticide spraying were found to be significant predictors of microalbuminuria. Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated. © 2011 Wanigasuriya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. en
dc.relation.ispartofseries BMC Nephrology en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Details obtained from http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/1471-2369/ en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ en
dc.title Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: Is cadmium a likely cause? en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1186/1471-2369-12-32 en
pubs.issue 32 en
pubs.volume 12 en
dc.identifier.pmid 21726464 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype Article en
pubs.elements-id 272698 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id Population Health en
pubs.org-id Epidemiology & Biostatistics en
dc.identifier.eissn 1471-2369 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2014-01-10 en
pubs.dimensions-id 21726464 en


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