Hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent paleoenvironments and paleontology: Past developments and future research directions

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dc.contributor.author Campbell, Kathleen en
dc.date.accessioned 2014-10-30T03:50:56Z en
dc.date.issued 2006-03-22 en
dc.identifier.citation Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2006, 232 (2-4), pp. 362 - 407 en
dc.identifier.issn 0031-0182 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/23381 en
dc.description.abstract Hydrocarbon seeps and hydrothermal vents are now known to be common at continental margins and oceanic spreading centers worldwide, exuding fluids rich in CH4 and H2S, and teeming with life based on chemosynthesis. These settings have been implicated as the crucibles for life's origin, and as locales for methane release to the atmosphere from hydrate destabilization during past climate change. Ancient vent and seep deposits are also increasingly recognized, and occur in various sizes, lithologies, biotic compositions, geotectonic settings and ages. Precambrian vents were Populated with microbes, with the oldest metazoans in vent settings reported from possibly the Cambrian, but definitely by the Silurian. The oldest purported seep deposit with metazoan fossils is Silurian in age. A largely endemic and chemosymbiotic biota from modern vents and seeps appears distinct phylogenetically from those taxa in deposits older than Jurassic, with a shift from extant families of particular bivalves and gastropods to now-extinct family groups of brachiopods, monoplacophorans, bivalves and gastropods. An exception may be worm tubes of possible vestimentiferan origins, with a history in hydrothermal vent paleoenvironments extending back to the Early Paleozoic. Unfortunately their relatively simple morphology and particular style of preservation make comparisons with living groups a challenge. There may also be an ancient "lineage" of vent-seep restricted rhynchonellide brachiopods, which appears to have persisted in these settings from the Late Devonian through the Early Cretaceous. Because biotic components have changed in vent-seep settings through time, several lines of evidence must be marshaled to confirm the origin of suspected deposits in the geologic record. These include distinctive stable isotopic signatures of carbon, oxygen or sulfur in authigenic precipitates and/or tests of foraminiferans, certain mineral paragenetic sequences, and fluid-flow features. Lipid biomarkers also indicate biogeochernical cycling by Archaea and Bacteria, which performed sulfate-dependent, anaerobic oxidation of methane in ancient marine sediments.The origin of an endemic modem vent-seep biota has been attributed to either enhanced accumulation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic relies, or migration of various invertebrate groups into vent and seep environments during the Phanerozoic. Current databases from fossils and molecular characterization of living groups suggest that adaptive radiations and extinctions have occurred, with a range of lineage-ages represented. Fossil and molecular data broadly coincide with respect to the Cretaceous origination of vesicomyid bivalves and neomphaline gastropods in vents and seeps, but the data sets appear discordant at present for vestimentiferan tubeworms and bathymodiolin bivalves. Paleobiogeographic patterns are just beginning to emerge front Studies of vent and seep fossils, and are likely to reflect past plate tectonic configurations, sea-level change, as well as the history of organic matter accumulation, burial, hydrocarbon generation, and fluid migration with time. Thus far, ancient hydrocarbon seep deposits yield more diverse fossils than hydrothermal vent deposits, the opposite of the global diversity recently tabulated for modern vent-seep species. However, in the fossil record, taphonomic processes negatively impacted on ancient vent organisms, and the number of known ancient vent systems is still relatively small compared to regional occurrences of ancient seep deposits. Future research will likely investigate many new/suspected sites, inventory numerous additional taxa, decipher underlying Causes of variability among settings, and mobilize biologists and geologists to, work together to solve problems that cross both disciplines. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. en
dc.language EN en
dc.publisher Elsevier Science en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Details obtained from http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-policies/article-posting-policy http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/0031-0182/ en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.subject hydrocarbon seep en
dc.subject hydrothermal vent en
dc.subject chemosynthesis en
dc.subject evolution en
dc.subject paleoenvironments en
dc.subject paleoecology en
dc.subject ANAEROBIC METHANE OXIDATION en
dc.subject FORE-ARC BASIN en
dc.subject MASSIVE SULFIDE DEPOSIT en
dc.subject SILICA IRON EXHALITES en
dc.title Hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent paleoenvironments and paleontology: Past developments and future research directions en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.06.018 en
pubs.issue 2-4 en
pubs.begin-page 362 en
pubs.volume 232 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: Elsevier Science en
pubs.end-page 407 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RestrictedAccess en
pubs.subtype Review en
pubs.elements-id 66738 en
pubs.org-id Science en
pubs.org-id School of Environment en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2010-09-01 en


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