Rapid priming, accumulation, and recharge of magma driving recent eruptions at a hyperactive caldera volcano

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dc.contributor.author Barker, Simon en
dc.contributor.author Wilson, CJN en
dc.contributor.author Morgan, DJ en
dc.contributor.author Rowland, Julie en
dc.date.accessioned 2017-08-24T02:39:57Z en
dc.date.issued 2016-04 en
dc.identifier.citation Geology 44(4):323-326 Apr 2016 en
dc.identifier.issn 0091-7613 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/35328 en
dc.description.abstract A major challenge in volcanology is determining the factors that control the frequency and magnitude of eruptions at hazardous caldera volcanoes. Understanding the critical sequence of events that may lead to future eruptions is vital for volcanic monitoring and risk assessment. Here we use magma chemistry and mineral diffusion modeling to interpret the magmatic processes and time scales involved in the youngest three eruptions (2.15–1.7 ka) from Taupo volcano (New Zealand), which peaked with the voluminous A.D. 232 eruption. Of the rhyolites erupted since ca. 12 ka, the <2.15 ka magmas have the lowest whole-rock SiO2 content and reversely zoned crystals, yet with high-SiO2 melt inclusions. Mineral zonations and compositional shifts reflect a 30–40 °C temperature increase over the immediately preceding (>2.75 ka) rhyolites that were tapped from the same magma reservoir. Orthopyroxene Fe-Mg diffusion time scales indicate that the onset of rapid heating and priming of the host silicic mush occurred <120 yr prior to the <2.15 ka eruptions, with subsequent melt accumulation occurring in only decades. Elevated mafic magma supply to the silicic mush pile, rapid melt accumulation, and high differential tectonic stress built up and culminated in the ∼105 km3 A.D. 232 eruption, one of the largest and most violent Holocene eruptions globally. These youngest eruptions demonstrate how Taupo’s magmatic system can rapidly change behavior to generate large eruptible melt bodies on time scales of direct relevance to humans and monitoring initiatives. en
dc.publisher Geological Society of America en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Geology en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.title Rapid priming, accumulation, and recharge of magma driving recent eruptions at a hyperactive caldera volcano en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1130/G37382.1 en
pubs.issue 4 en
pubs.begin-page 323 en
pubs.volume 44 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: Geological Society of America en
pubs.end-page 326 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RestrictedAccess en
pubs.subtype Article en
pubs.elements-id 526455 en
pubs.org-id Science en
pubs.org-id School of Environment en
dc.identifier.eissn 1943-2682 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2017-08-24 en
pubs.online-publication-date 2016-03-09 en

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