A1 beta-casein milk protein and other environmental pre-disposing factors for type 1 diabetes.

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dc.contributor.author Chia, JSJ en
dc.contributor.author McRae, JL en
dc.contributor.author Kukuljan, S en
dc.contributor.author Woodford, K en
dc.contributor.author Elliott, RB en
dc.contributor.author Swinburn, Boyd en
dc.contributor.author Dwyer, KM en
dc.date.accessioned 2018-10-15T01:58:58Z en
dc.date.issued 2017-05-15 en
dc.identifier.citation Nutrition & diabetes 7(5):e274 15 May 2017 en
dc.identifier.issn 2044-4052 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/41522 en
dc.description.abstract Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows' milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors. Permissive gut factors (for example, aberrant mucosal immunity), intervene by impacting the gut's environment and the mucosal barrier. Various influencing factors (for example, breastfeeding duration, exposure to other dietary triggers and vitamin D) modify the impact of triggers and permissive gut factors on disease. The power of the dominant trigger and permissive gut factors on disease is influenced by timing, magnitude and/or duration of exposure. Within this framework, removal of a dominant dietary trigger may profoundly affect type 1 diabetes incidence. We present epidemiological, animal-based, in vitro and theoretical evidence for A1 β-casein and its β-casomorphin-7 derivative as dominant causal triggers of type 1 diabetes. The effects of ordinary milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein and milk containing only the A2 β-casein warrant comparison in prospective trials. en
dc.format.medium Electronic en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Nutrition & Diabetes en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.subject Milk en
dc.subject Animals en
dc.subject Humans en
dc.subject Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 en
dc.subject Caseins en
dc.subject Risk Factors en
dc.title A1 beta-casein milk protein and other environmental pre-disposing factors for type 1 diabetes. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1038/nutd.2017.16 en
pubs.issue 5 en
pubs.begin-page e274 en
pubs.volume 7 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The authors en
dc.identifier.pmid 28504710 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype review-article en
pubs.subtype Review en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 627549 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id Population Health en
pubs.org-id Epidemiology & Biostatistics en
dc.identifier.eissn 2044-4052 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2017-05-16 en
pubs.dimensions-id 28504710 en

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