Calcium and Cardiovascular Disease.

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dc.contributor.author Reid, Ian en
dc.contributor.author Birstow, Sarah M en
dc.contributor.author Bolland, Mark en
dc.date.accessioned 2018-10-19T00:59:23Z en
dc.date.issued 2017-09 en
dc.identifier.citation Endocrinology and Metabolism 32(3):339-349 Sep 2017 en
dc.identifier.issn 2093-596X en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/42922 en
dc.description.abstract Circulating calcium is a risk factor for vascular disease, a conclusion arising from prospective studies involving hundreds of thousands of participants and extending over periods of up to 30 years. These associations may be partially mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors such as circulating lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index, but there appears to be a residual independent effect of serum calcium. Polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor associated with small elevations of serum calcium are also associated with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that calcium plays a causative role. Trials of calcium supplements in patients on dialysis and those with less severe renal failure demonstrate increased mortality and/or acceleration of vascular disease, and meta-analyses of trials in those without overt renal disease suggest a similar adverse effect. Interpretation of the latter trials is complicated by a significant interaction between baseline use of calcium supplements and the effect of randomisation to calcium in the largest trial. Restriction of analysis to those who are calcium-naive demonstrates a consistent adverse effect. Observational studies of dietary calcium do not demonstrate a consistent adverse effect on cardiovascular health, though very high or very low intakes may be deleterious. Thus, obtaining calcium from the diet rather than supplements is to be encouraged. en
dc.format.medium Print en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea) en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri https://www.e-enm.org/index.php?body=instructions en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ en
dc.title Calcium and Cardiovascular Disease. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.3803/enm.2017.32.3.339 en
pubs.issue 3 en
pubs.begin-page 339 en
pubs.volume 32 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: Korean Endocrine Society en
dc.identifier.pmid 28956363 en
pubs.end-page 349 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype review-article en
pubs.subtype Review en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 679008 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id School of Medicine en
pubs.org-id Medicine Department en
pubs.org-id Science en
pubs.org-id Science Research en
pubs.org-id Maurice Wilkins Centre (2010-2014) en
dc.identifier.eissn 2093-5978 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2017-09-29 en
pubs.dimensions-id 28956363 en


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https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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