Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signalling Bias Elicited by 2,4,6-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazines

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dc.contributor.author Oyagawa, Caitlin en
dc.contributor.author de la Harpe, SM en
dc.contributor.author Saroz, Yurii en
dc.contributor.author Glass, Michelle en
dc.contributor.author Vernall, AJ en
dc.contributor.author Grimsey, Natasha en
dc.date.accessioned 2019-03-05T03:20:01Z en
dc.date.available 2018-10-01 en
dc.date.issued 2018-11-20 en
dc.identifier.citation Frontiers in Pharmacology 9:1202-1202 20 Nov 2018 en
dc.identifier.issn 1663-9812 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/45757 en
dc.description.abstract Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is predominantly distributed in immune tissues and cells and is a promising therapeutic target for modulating inflammation. In this study we designed and synthesised a series of 2,4,6-trisubstituted 1,3,5-triazines with piperazinylalkyl or 1,2-diethoxyethane (PEG2) chains as CB2 agonists, all of which were predicted to be considerably more polar than typical cannabinoid ligands. In this series, we found that triazines containing an adamantanyl group were conducive to CB2 binding whereas those with a cyclopentyl group were not. Although the covalent attachment of a PEG2 linker to the adamantyl triazines resulted in a decrease in binding affinity, some of the ligands produced very interesting hCB2 signalling profiles. Six compounds with notable hCB2 orthosteric binding were functionally characterised in three pathways; internalisation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and ERK phosphorylation (pERK). These were predominantly confirmed to be hCB2 agonists, and upon comparison to a reference ligand (CP 55,940), four compounds exhibited signalling bias. Triazines 14 (UOSD017) and 15 were biased towards internalisation over cAMP and pERK, and 7 was biased away from pERK activation relative to cAMP and internalisation. Intriguingly, the triazine with an amino-PEG2-piperazinyl linker (13 [UOSD008]) was identified to be a mixed agonist/inverse agonist, exhibiting apparent neutral antagonism in the internalisation pathway, transient inverse agonism in the cAMP pathway and weak partial agonism in the pERK pathway. Both the cAMP and pERK signalling were pertussis toxin (PTX) sensitive, implying that 13 is acting as both a weak agonist and inverse agonist at CB2 via Gαi/o. Compound 10 (UOSD015) acted as a balanced high intrinsic efficacy agonist with the potential to produce greater hCB2-mediated efficacy than reference ligand CP 55,940. As 10 includes a Boc-protected PEG2 moiety it is also a promising candidate for further modification, for example with a secondary reporter or fluorophore. The highest affinity compound in this set of relatively polar hCB2 ligands was compound 16, which acted as a slightly partial balanced agonist in comparison with CP 55,940. The ligands characterised here may therefore exhibit unique functional properties in vivo and have the potential to be valuable in the future development of CB2-directed therapeutics. en
dc.publisher Frontiers Media en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Frontiers in Pharmacology en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.title Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signalling Bias Elicited by 2,4,6-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazines en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.3389/fphar.2018.01202 en
pubs.begin-page 1202 en
pubs.volume 9 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The authors en
pubs.author-url https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01202 en
pubs.end-page 1202 en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype Article en
pubs.elements-id 756694 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id Medical Sciences en
pubs.org-id Pharmacology en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2018-11-21 en
pubs.dimensions-id 30524271 en


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