Listening Instruction and Teacher Cognition Underpinning the Skill in Iranian Private English Institutes

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dc.contributor.advisor East, M en Bagheri Sangachin, Morteza en 2019-07-18T05:02:19Z en 2019 en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract Although the teaching of listening as a distinct and critical skill for L2 learning has been explored by researchers and practitioners over the last fifty years, it is still the least researched, and probably the least understood macro-skill. The number of studies that have explored listening instruction systematically is limited in volume and scope, with most of the existing literature based on intuitive explanations and individual perceptions rather than empirical evidence. Exploration of second language teacher cognition has also attracted the attention of many researchers over the last four decades. The majority of studies in this area have focused on grammar and literacy, and teacher cognition has not adequately addressed the skill of listening. In addition, research and scholarship to date has largely been conducted in English as a Second Language (ESL) contexts where listening practice opportunities are readily available outside the classroom. This study therefore aims to explore how teachers undertake listening instruction and the cognitions underpinning their practices through an investigation of teachers' beliefs, principles and practices. It also investigates how and to what extent different potential factors shaped teachers' listening classroom practices and their cognitions. In order to address these questions, the study adopted a mixed-method approach, and drew on observations, interviews, curriculum data, and questionnaires. It took place in an EFL context (seven private English language institutes in Iran) in which learners had limited contact with English as first language speakers, but where listening was provided as an essential skill for those who wish to travel overseas, especially for academic purposes. Findings reveal that listening instruction was characterised by a number of techniques based on integrated approaches. Teachers were familiar with different teaching approaches and had knowledge of an extensive repertoire of listening techniques. The influence of a Communicative Language Teaching approach on teaching listening was also observed through the use of authentic materials; linking listening with other skills; activating background knowledge; and encouraging general understanding. While comprehension-based practices were common, it was not the dominant approach in teaching listening in private English institutes in Iran. Concerning teacher cognition, teachers considered listening to be a teachable independent skill that requires explicit teaching as an independent skill and emphasized the importance of instruction in metacognitive strategies. Listening was regarded as invaluable input for second language learning and developing other skills, especially speaking. While teaching experience and contextual factors were the most influential factors in shaping teachers' cognitions and classroom practices in the questionnaire responses, interview findings illustrated that teachers considered the effect of contextual factors more influential than other elements. en
dc.publisher ResearchSpace@Auckland en
dc.relation.ispartof PhD Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.relation.isreferencedby UoA99265151110802091 en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.title Listening Instruction and Teacher Cognition Underpinning the Skill in Iranian Private English Institutes en
dc.type Thesis en Applied Linguistics en The University of Auckland en Doctoral en PhD en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
dc.rights.accessrights en
pubs.elements-id 776936 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2019-07-18 en

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