Are young female suicides increasing? A comparison of sex-specific rates and characteristics of youth suicides in Australia over 2004-2014.

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dc.contributor.author Stefanac, Nina en
dc.contributor.author Hetrick, Sarah en
dc.contributor.author Hulbert, Carol en
dc.contributor.author Spittal, Matthew J en
dc.contributor.author Witt, Katrina en
dc.contributor.author Robinson, Jo en
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-13T00:02:40Z en
dc.date.issued 2019-10-28 en
dc.identifier.citation BMC public health 19(1):1389 28 Oct 2019 en
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2458 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/49653 en
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND:Australian mortality statistics suggest that young female suicides have increased since 2004 in comparison to young males, a pattern documented across other Western high-income countries. This may indicate a need for more targeted and multifaceted youth suicide prevention efforts. However, sex-based time trends are yet to be tested empirically within a comprehensive Australian sample. The aim of this study was to examine changes over time in sex-based rates and characteristics of all suicides among young people in Australia (2004-2014). METHODS:National Coronial Information System and Australian Bureau of Statistics data provided annual suicide counts and rates for 10-24-year-olds in Australia (2004-2014), stratified by sex, age group, Indigenous status and methods. Negative binomial regressions estimated time trends in population-stratified rates, and multinomial logistic regressions estimated time trends by major suicide methods (i.e., hanging, drug poisoning). RESULTS:Between 2004 and 2014, 3709 young Australians aged 10-24 years died by suicide. Whilst, overall, youth suicide rates did not increase significantly in Australia between 2004 and 2014, there was a significant increase in suicide rates for females (incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.06), but not males. Rates were consistently higher among Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander youth, males, and in older (20-24-years) as compared to younger (15-19 years) age groups. Overall, the odds of using hanging as a method of suicide increased over time among both males and females, whilst the odds of using drug-poisoning did not change over this period. CONCLUSIONS:We showed that suicide rates among young females, but not young males, increased over the study period. Patterns were observed in the use of major suicide methods with hanging the most frequently used method among both sexes and more likely among younger and Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander groups. Findings highlight the need to broaden current conceptualizations of youth suicide to one increasingly involving young females, and strengthen the case for a multifaceted prevention approach that capitalize on young females' greater help-seeking propensity. en
dc.format.medium Electronic en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries BMC public health en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Humans en
dc.subject Retrospective Studies en
dc.subject Suicide en
dc.subject Age Distribution en
dc.subject Sex Distribution en
dc.subject Adolescent en
dc.subject Child en
dc.subject Australia en
dc.subject Female en
dc.subject Male en
dc.subject Young Adult en
dc.title Are young female suicides increasing? A comparison of sex-specific rates and characteristics of youth suicides in Australia over 2004-2014. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1186/s12889-019-7742-9 en
pubs.issue 1 en
pubs.begin-page 1389 en
pubs.volume 19 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The authors en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype research-article en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 786451 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id School of Medicine en
pubs.org-id Psychological Medicine Dept en
dc.identifier.eissn 1471-2458 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2019-10-30 en
pubs.dimensions-id 31660926 en


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