Compared with Cow Milk, a Growing-Up Milk Increases Vitamin D and Iron Status in Healthy Children at 2 Years of Age: The Growing-Up Milk-Lite (GUMLi) Randomized Controlled Trial.

Show simple item record Lovell, Amy en Davies, Peter SW en Hill, Rebecca J en Milne, Tania en Matsuyama, Misa en Jiang, Yannan en Chen, Rachel en Wouldes, Trecia en Heath, Anne-Louise M en Grant, Cameron en Wall, Clare en 2020-02-11T22:48:04Z en 2018-10 en
dc.identifier.issn 0022-3166 en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract Background:Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are significant pediatric health issues in New Zealand and Australia and remain prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in young children globally. Objective:We aimed to investigate the effect of a micronutrient-fortified, reduced-energy growing-up milk (GUMLi) compared with cow milk (CM) consumed for 1 y on dietary iron and vitamin D intakes and the status of New Zealand and Australian children at 2 y of age. Methods:The GUMLi Trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 160 healthy 1-y-old New Zealand and Australian children conducted in 2015-2017. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive GUMLi (1.7 mg Fe/100 mL; 1.3 µg cholecalciferol/100 mL) or CM (0.02 mg Fe/100 mL; 0.06 µg cholecalciferol/100 mL) for 12 mo. Secondary outcomes, reported here, included change in dietary iron and vitamin D intakes, iron status, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from blood samples at age 2 y. All regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome and study center. Results:GUMLi was a large contributor to dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D after 12 mo when compared with intakes from food and CM. The adjusted mean difference between groups for serum ferritin concentrations was 17.8 µg/L (95% CI: 13.6, 22.0 µg/L; P < 0.0001), and for 25(OH)D it was 16.6 nmol/L (95% CI: 9.9, 23.3 nmol/L; P < 0.0001). After 12 mo, ID was present in 16 (24%) participants in the CM group and 5 (7%) participants in the GUMLi group (P = 0.009), and the prevalence of VDD in the CM group increased to 14% (n = 10) and decreased to 3% (n = 2) (P = 0.03) in the GUMLi group. Conclusion:In comparison with CM, GUMLi significantly improved dietary iron and vitamin D intakes and the iron and vitamin D status of healthy children at 2 y of age. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( as ACTRN12614000918628. en
dc.format.medium Print en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries The Journal of nutrition en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.subject Milk en
dc.subject Animals en
dc.subject Humans en
dc.subject Anemia, Iron-Deficiency en
dc.subject Vitamin D Deficiency en
dc.subject Iron en
dc.subject Iron, Dietary en
dc.subject Cholecalciferol en
dc.subject Micronutrients en
dc.subject Vitamins en
dc.subject Vitamin D en
dc.subject Diet en
dc.subject Double-Blind Method en
dc.subject Nutritional Status en
dc.subject Dietary Supplements en
dc.subject Food, Fortified en
dc.subject Child, Preschool en
dc.subject Female en
dc.subject Male en
dc.title Compared with Cow Milk, a Growing-Up Milk Increases Vitamin D and Iron Status in Healthy Children at 2 Years of Age: The Growing-Up Milk-Lite (GUMLi) Randomized Controlled Trial. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/jn/nxy167 en
pubs.issue 10 en
pubs.begin-page 1570 en
pubs.volume 148 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
pubs.end-page 1579 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights en
pubs.subtype Comparative Study en
pubs.subtype Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't en
pubs.subtype Randomized Controlled Trial en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 754779 en Medical and Health Sciences en Medical Sciences en Nutrition en School of Medicine en Paediatrics Child & Youth Hlth en Psychological Medicine Dept en Science en Statistics en
dc.identifier.eissn 1541-6100 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2018-10-04 en
pubs.dimensions-id 30281106 en

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