Placental formation in early pregnancy: how is the centre of the placenta made?

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dc.contributor.author Boss, Anna en
dc.contributor.author Chamley, Lawrence en
dc.contributor.author James, Joanna en
dc.date.accessioned 2020-02-17T01:25:55Z en
dc.date.issued 2018-11 en
dc.identifier.issn 1355-4786 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/50068 en
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND:Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited. Due to ethical constraints and the inaccessibility of very early implantation tissues, our knowledge of early placentation has been largely based on historical histological sections. More recently, stem cell technologies have begun to shed important new light on the origins of the placental mesenchymal lineages. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:This review aims to amalgamate the older and more modern literature regarding the origins of the non-trophoblast lineages of the human placenta. We highlight ways in which rapidly developing stem cell technologies may shed new light on these crucial peri-implantation events. SEARCH METHODS:Relevant articles were identified using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engines. A pearl growing method was used to expand the scope of papers relevant to the cell differentiation events of non-trophoblast placental lineages. OUTCOMES:At the start of pregnancy, cells of the extraembyronic mesoderm migrate to underlie the primitive trophoblast layers forming the first placental villi. The mesenchymal cells in the villus core most likely originate from the hypoblast of the embryo, but whether cells from the epiblast also contribute is yet to be determined. This is important because, following the formation of the villus core, vasculogenesis and haematopoiesis take place in the nascent placenta before it is connected to the embryonic circulation, making it likely that haematopoietic foci, placental macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells all arise in the placenta de novo. Evidence from the stem cell field indicates that these cells could directly differentiate from the extraembryonic mesoderm. However, the lineage hierarchy involved in cell fate decisions has not been well-established. Mesodermal progenitors capable of differentiating into both vascular and haematopoietic lineages can be derived from human embryonic stem cells, but the identification of such stem cells in the placenta is lacking. Future work profiling rare progenitor populations in early placentae will aid our understanding of early placentation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS:Understanding the origins of the cell lineages of the normal placenta will help us understand why so many pregnancies fail and address mechanisms that may salvage some of these losses. en
dc.format.medium Print en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Human reproduction update en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.subject Stem Cells en
dc.subject Blastocyst en
dc.subject Placenta en
dc.subject Animals en
dc.subject Humans en
dc.subject Cell Differentiation en
dc.subject Cell Lineage en
dc.subject Embryo Implantation en
dc.subject Pregnancy en
dc.subject Placentation en
dc.subject Female en
dc.title Placental formation in early pregnancy: how is the centre of the placenta made? en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/humupd/dmy030 en
pubs.issue 6 en
pubs.begin-page 750 en
pubs.volume 24 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
pubs.end-page 760 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RestrictedAccess en
pubs.subtype Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't en
pubs.subtype Review en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 755604 en
pubs.org-id Medical and Health Sciences en
pubs.org-id Pharmacy en
pubs.org-id School of Medicine en
pubs.org-id Obstetrics and Gynaecology en
dc.identifier.eissn 1460-2369 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2018-09-27 en
pubs.dimensions-id 30257012 en


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