Land Use Planning and the Action of Market Actors in Delivering Residential Intensification in Auckland, New Zealand

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dc.contributor.advisor Haarhoff, E en
dc.contributor.advisor Beattie, L en
dc.contributor.author Liu, Wen en
dc.date.accessioned 2020-05-15T04:01:39Z en
dc.date.issued 2020 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2292/50714 en
dc.description.abstract Urban growth policies that promote residential intensification and higher density development have been widely embraced in the development strategies of many new world cities. However, there seems to be increasing uncertainty among policymakers, practitioners and the private sector around whether land-use plan tools and means can enable the realisation of expected outcomes. The conformance between plans and intended plan outcomes is at the heart of the urban planning process. Effective planning requires the plans to deliver the plan tools, means and actions to achieve the desired outcomes. Furthermore, in cities where neoliberal economic conditions prevail, the actualisation of residential intensification is largely concerned with planning activities for which market responses and actions play significant roles in shaping the outcomes. Understanding these challenges and their relationship to land use planning and regulations requires empirical investigation and evidence to facilitate land use plans in achieving the intended intensification goals, and further to facilitate market actions towards intensified developments on to the ground. The research objectives of this thesis are to explore the plan tools of the statutory land use plan (the Auckland Unitary Plan, the AUP) (1) to externally translate the higher-order spatial plan (the strategic plan, the Auckland Plan 2012, the AP 2012) visions and policies and internally align with the lower-order objectives and policies; (2) to achieve intended policy outcomes related to intensification; and (3) to facilitate market actors’ actions in delivering residential intensification. The AUP replaced the former Regional Policy Statement (RPS), four regional plans and seven district plans, by setting out rules and standards to provide a legal framework for achieving the aim of a compact city and residential intensification. Specifically, the research investigates the plan instruments and methods (including rules) of two versions of the AUP (the Notified Version 2013 [the NV]; and the Auckland Council Decisions Version 2016 [the DV], which followed public consultation and hearings) to realise intended intensification goals through (1) content evaluation of the AUP’s internal alignment, and external alignment with higher-order strategic visions of the spatial plan (the Auckland Plan 2012, the AP 2012); (2) case study modelling and analysis of plan methods for realising plan goals for intensification; and (3) in-depth interviews with 23 market actors and planning professionals (including developers and planning professionals for the chosen case studies) on plan applications, and the influences of the AUP in facilitating market activity toward intensified developments. The findings reveal that the planning practices and tools of the AUP are unlikely to fully adhere to the intended plan outcomes and follow the conceptual framework and assumptions underpinning the New Zealand planning system. Counter to the intended intensification outcomes, the NV shows reductions in capacity for half of the selected case studies when compared to the legacy district plans (LDPs). The planning process employed in the AUP seems to show an improvement in intensification capacity in its DV, as well as greater internal alignment. However, although the two versions of the AUP are partly aligned with visions in the spatial plan (strategic plan), the DV further diverges from the long-term strategic visions of the AP 2012, which may indicate that the community’s aspirations differ from those of the local council. Furthermore, the interview findings demonstrate that the market stakeholders may not fully understand the policy framework or may not even read or look at the policy outcomes, which is likely to undermine the effectiveness of the plan approach to facilitate attention and actions toward the expected policy outcomes. The thesis also highlights the divergent perceptions of the public and private sectors on plan approach, regulations, and framework in promoting higher density housing typologies. The findings reveal the disconnections between; the rational-comprehensive model and planning practice, between the plan capacity to enable intensification and the desired plan outcomes, and also between market actors’ and planners’ experience of the policy framework, approach and tools for facilitating the achievement of plan goals. This research concludes with implications and recommendations for future urban land use planning theory, framework, practice and education that addresses the gap between a plan’s intended outcomes and planning practices. en
dc.publisher ResearchSpace@Auckland en
dc.relation.ispartof PhD Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.relation.isreferencedby UoA en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.title Land Use Planning and the Action of Market Actors in Delivering Residential Intensification in Auckland, New Zealand en
dc.type Thesis en
thesis.degree.discipline Planning en
thesis.degree.grantor The University of Auckland en
thesis.degree.level Doctoral en
thesis.degree.name PhD en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.elements-id 801841 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2020-05-15 en


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