Preformulation studies of l-glutathione: physicochemical properties, degradation kinetics, and in vitro cytotoxicity investigations.

Show simple item record Liu, Mengyang en Sharma, Manisha en Lu, Guo-Liang en Yin, Naibo en Gailani, Murad Al en Sreebhavan, Sree en Wen, Jingyuan en 2020-06-09T04:40:49Z en 2020-05 en
dc.identifier.issn 0363-9045 en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract Objectives: l-Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous tripeptide with super antioxidant properties. In this study, preformulation parameters of GSH and its degradation products were fully investigated.Significance: To date, no experimental preformulation data is available for GSH. Therefore, to the author's knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally determine the preformulation parameters of GSH, which can be considered more reliable for further studies.Methods: An HPLC method for GSH was optimized and validated to accurately quantify the GSH amount in solution, used to investigate GSH's solubility and Log P. Differential Scanning Calorimeter and Thermogravimetric Analyzer were used to evaluate the thermal properties of GSH. Polarized microscope and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy were used to determine GSH's crystal habits and functional groups, respectively. Forced degradation kinetics and the degradation products were investigated and identified by LC-MS, respectively. GSH's cellular cytotoxicity on fibroblasts was investigated by MTT assay.Results: It was determined that GSH has high aqueous solubility (252.7 mg/mL), low Log P (-3.1), a melting endotherm of 195 °C and decomposition at 210°C, negligible moisture content, and a rectangular/cylindrical-shaped crystalline form. Seven degradation products were identified; one of the major degradation products of GSH under different conditions is first order kinetic oxidation into glutathione disulfide. No cytotoxicity was observed when fibroblasts were treated with GSH (0.005-10.000 mg/mL).Conclusions: Precise preformulation parameters of GSH were obtained, and these are imperative for the development and optimization of advanced GSH formulations. en
dc.format.medium Print-Electronic en
dc.language eng en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Drug development and industrial pharmacy en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.title Preformulation studies of l-glutathione: physicochemical properties, degradation kinetics, and in vitro cytotoxicity investigations. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1080/03639045.2020.1752708 en
pubs.issue 5 en
pubs.begin-page 717 en
pubs.volume 46 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
pubs.end-page 731 en
pubs.publication-status Published en
dc.rights.accessrights en
pubs.subtype Journal Article en
pubs.elements-id 798260 en Medical and Health Sciences en Medical Sciences en Auckland Cancer Research en Pharmacy en
dc.identifier.eissn 1520-5762 en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2020-04-07 en
pubs.dimensions-id 32249604 en

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