Empathy and Fairness Sensitivity as a Motivator of children's Helping and Sharing behavior, and the influence of Theory of Mind

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dc.contributor.advisor Henderson, Annette
dc.contributor.author Kwan, Nga Yin (Debbie)
dc.date.accessioned 2021-04-23T02:08:45Z
dc.date.available 2021-04-23T02:08:45Z
dc.date.issued 2020 en
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/2292/54973
dc.description Full Text is available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland only. en
dc.description.abstract The present study was conducted to examine two potential motivators of prosocial behavior - empathy and fairness sensitivity - and Theory of Mind (ToM) in shaping preschoolaged children's helping and sharing behavior. Empathy was measured by children's expressions of empathic concern (EC) and personal distress (PD), with 190, 3-year-olds (M = 36.19 months, SD = 0.13), completing a battery of helping tasks across instrumental, emotion and altruistic helping conditions. Children's fairness concerns, specifically fairness-related speech, were measured during a cooperative activity, which 168, 4-year-olds (M = 52.92 months, SD = 0.49) participated in, with sharing behavior being measured using the dictator game (DG) after the completion of the task. Results revealed that children expressing moderate levels of EC were likely to help faster than children expressing barely any EC. While children expressing barely any PD were shown to help quicker than children expressing some levels of PD. ToM did not moderate the relationships between EC or PD on children's helping behavior in either of the helping conditions. Furthermore, our results indicate that fairness comments had to be made by both social partners in order to increase the likelihood of sharing. In test trials where only one, or where neither of the social partners made fairness comments, then this had no significant effect on sharing. ToM was found moderating the relationship between fairness concerns and children's sharing behavior. Contrary to our hypothesis, children with low ToM were more encouraged by fairness comments than were children with moderate, or high ToM to share a higher number of stickers. Our results contribute to the growing body of literature aimed at understanding what motivates children to autonomously help and share with others. en
dc.publisher ResearchSpace@Auckland en
dc.relation.ispartof Masters Thesis - University of Auckland en
dc.relation.isreferencedby UoA99265333489202091 en
dc.rights Restricted Item. Full Text is available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland only. en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/nz/
dc.title Empathy and Fairness Sensitivity as a Motivator of children's Helping and Sharing behavior, and the influence of Theory of Mind
dc.type Thesis en
thesis.degree.discipline Psychology
thesis.degree.grantor The University of Auckland en
thesis.degree.level Masters en
dc.date.updated 2021-04-15T23:54:26Z
dc.rights.holder Copyright: the author en


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