Extended screen time and dry eye in youth.

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dc.contributor.author Muntz, Alex
dc.contributor.author Turnbull, Philip Rk
dc.contributor.author Kim, Andy D
dc.contributor.author Gokul, Akilesh
dc.contributor.author Wong, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Tsay, Tricia Shau-Wei
dc.contributor.author Zhao, Karyn
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Simo
dc.contributor.author Kingsnorth, Alec
dc.contributor.author Wolffsohn, James S
dc.contributor.author Craig, Jennifer P
dc.coverage.spatial England
dc.date.accessioned 2022-02-09T21:36:18Z
dc.date.available 2022-02-09T21:36:18Z
dc.date.issued 2021-11-25
dc.identifier.citation Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association 101541 25 Nov 2021
dc.identifier.issn 1367-0484
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/2292/58130
dc.description.abstract <h4>Purpose</h4>Extended screen time amongst youth is a pervasive global phenomenon, with wide-ranging implications for health and quality of life. Dry eye disease is increasingly reported as emerging in paediatric populations and is associated with modified blinking behaviour during extended screen time. This study sought to evaluate spontaneous blink rates, dry eye symptomology and screen use habits of young extended screen time users.<h4>Methods</h4>Attendees of a gaming convention in Auckland, NZ, completed a self-directed iPad-based survey on personal screen use habits and ocular symptoms using the 5-item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) and the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaire. Blink rate was covertly and concomitantly recorded using the front-facing iPad camera and quantified by automated software. A validated, self-assessment blink test was administered as a proxy for tear film stability measurements.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 456 respondents (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 10 years, range: 13 - 75, 38% female) reported an average weekly screen time of 43.7 ± 24.4 h. DEQ-5 and SANDE scores were 10 ± 3 and 34 ± 19; 90% of respondents qualified as symptomatic for dry eye disease (DEQ-5 ≥ 6). Blink test results suggested a tear film stability < 10 s in 24% of cases. Poorer symptomology correlated with increased screen use, elevated blink rates and reduced proxy tear film stability (r = 0.15 to 0.22, all p < 0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Extended screen time in a young population was associated with blinking behaviour and symptomology consistent with patients with dry eye. Implementing routine clinical screening, educational interventions, and developing official guidance on safe screen use may help prevent an accelerated degradation of ocular surface health and quality of life in young people.
dc.format.medium Print-Electronic
dc.language eng
dc.publisher Elsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofseries Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm
dc.subject Children
dc.subject Digital display use
dc.subject Dry eye disease
dc.subject Incomplete blinking
dc.subject Lifestyle
dc.subject Ocular surface
dc.subject Screen time
dc.subject Video display terminal
dc.subject 1113 Opthalmology and Optometry
dc.title Extended screen time and dry eye in youth.
dc.type Journal Article
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.clae.2021.101541
pubs.begin-page 101541
dc.date.updated 2022-01-05T01:17:19Z
dc.rights.holder Copyright: 2021 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. en
pubs.author-url https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34840070
pubs.publication-status Published
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/RetrictedAccess en
pubs.subtype Journal Article
pubs.elements-id 876234
dc.identifier.eissn 1476-5411
dc.identifier.pii S1367-0484(21)00176-4
pubs.number 101541

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