Investigating the Intervention Parameters of Endogenous Paired Associative Stimulation (ePAS).

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dc.contributor.author Alder, Gemma
dc.contributor.author Signal, Nada
dc.contributor.author Vandal, Alain C
dc.contributor.author Olsen, Sharon
dc.contributor.author Jochumsen, Mads
dc.contributor.author Niazi, Imran Khan
dc.contributor.author Taylor, Denise
dc.coverage.spatial Switzerland
dc.date.accessioned 2022-07-25T01:51:59Z
dc.date.available 2022-07-25T01:51:59Z
dc.date.issued 2021-02-12
dc.identifier.citation (2021). Brain Sciences, 11(2), 224-.
dc.identifier.issn 2076-3425
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/2292/60493
dc.description.abstract Advances in our understanding of neural plasticity have prompted the emergence of neuromodulatory interventions, which modulate corticomotor excitability (CME) and hold potential for accelerating stroke recovery. Endogenous paired associative stimulation (ePAS) involves the repeated pairing of a single pulse of peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) with endogenous movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), which are derived from electroencephalography. However, little is known about the optimal parameters for its delivery. A factorial design with repeated measures delivered four different versions of ePAS, in which PES intensities and movement type were manipulated. Linear mixed models were employed to assess interaction effects between PES intensity (suprathreshold (Hi) and motor threshold (Lo)) and movement type (Voluntary and Imagined) on CME. ePAS interventions significantly increased CME compared to control interventions, except in the case of Lo-Voluntary ePAS. There was an overall main effect for the Hi-Voluntary ePAS intervention immediately post-intervention (p = 0.002), with a sub-additive interaction effect at 30 min' post-intervention (p = 0.042). Hi-Imagined and Lo-Imagined ePAS significantly increased CME for 30 min post-intervention (p = 0.038 and p = 0.043 respectively). The effects of the two PES intensities were not significantly different. CME was significantly greater after performing imagined movements, compared to voluntary movements, with motor threshold PES (Lo) 15 min post-intervention (p = 0.012). This study supports previous research investigating Lo-Imagined ePAS and extends those findings by illustrating that ePAS interventions that deliver suprathreshold intensities during voluntary or imagined movements (Hi-Voluntary and Hi-Imagined) also increase CME. Importantly, our findings indicate that stimulation intensity and movement type interact in ePAS interventions. Factorial designs are an efficient way to explore the effects of manipulating the parameters of neuromodulatory interventions. Further research is required to ensure that these parameters are appropriately refined to maximise intervention efficacy for people with stroke and to support translation into clinical practice.
dc.format.medium Electronic
dc.language eng
dc.publisher MDPI
dc.relation.ispartofseries Brain sciences
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
dc.rights.uri https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/docs/uoa-docs/rights.htm
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject factorial design
dc.subject linear mixed regression
dc.subject movement-related cortical potential
dc.subject neural plasticity
dc.subject neuromodulation
dc.subject paired associative stimulation
dc.subject rehabilitation (MeSH)
dc.subject stroke (MeSH)
dc.subject Clinical Research
dc.subject Science & Technology
dc.subject Life Sciences & Biomedicine
dc.subject Neurosciences
dc.subject Neurosciences & Neurology
dc.subject 1109 Neurosciences
dc.subject 1701 Psychology
dc.subject 1702 Cognitive Sciences
dc.title Investigating the Intervention Parameters of Endogenous Paired Associative Stimulation (ePAS).
dc.type Journal Article
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/brainsci11020224
pubs.issue 2
pubs.begin-page 224
pubs.volume 11
dc.date.updated 2022-06-07T01:34:38Z
dc.rights.holder Copyright: The author en
dc.identifier.pmid 33673171 (pubmed)
pubs.author-url https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33673171
pubs.publication-status Published
dc.rights.accessrights http://purl.org/eprint/accessRights/OpenAccess en
pubs.subtype research-article
pubs.subtype Journal Article
pubs.elements-id 841425
pubs.org-id Science
pubs.org-id Statistics
dc.identifier.eissn 2076-3425
dc.identifier.pii brainsci11020224
pubs.number ARTN 224
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2022-06-07
pubs.online-publication-date 2021-02-12


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