Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions.

Show simple item record Tin Tin, S en Woodward, Alistair en Thornley, Simon en Ameratunga, Shanthi en 2011-12-08T00:47:48Z en 2009 en
dc.identifier.citation International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 6:64-74 2009 en
dc.identifier.issn 1479-5868 en
dc.identifier.uri en
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Active commuting increases levels of physical activity and is more likely to be adopted and sustained than exercise programmes. Despite the potential health, environmental, social and economic benefits, cycling and walking are increasingly marginal modes of transport in many countries. This paper investigated regional and individual differences in cycling and walking to work in New Zealand over the 15-year period (1991-2006). METHODS: New Zealand Census data (collected every five years) were accessed to analyse self-reported information on the "main means of travel to work" from individuals aged 15 years and over who are usually resident and employed in New Zealand. This analysis investigated differences in patterns of active commuting to work stratified by region, age, gender and personal income. RESULTS: In 2006, over four-fifths of New Zealanders used a private vehicle, one in fourteen walked and one in forty cycled to work. Increased car use from 1991 to 2006 occurred at the expense of active means of travel as trends in public transport use remained unchanged during that period. Of the 16 regions defined at meshblock and area unit level, Auckland had the lowest prevalence of cycling and walking. In contrast to other regions, walking to work increased in Wellington and Nelson, two regions which have made substantial investments in local infrastructure to promote active transport. Nationally, cycling prevalence declined with age whereas a U-shaped trend was observed for walking. The numbers of younger people cycling to work and older people walking to work declined substantially from 1991 to 2006. Higher proportions of men compared with women cycled to work. The opposite was true for walking with an increasing trend observed in women aged under 30 years. Walking to work was less prevalent among people with higher income. CONCLUSION: We observed a steady decline in cycling and walking to work from 1991 to 2006, with two regional exceptions. This together with the important differences in travel patterns by age, gender and personal income highlights opportunities to target and modify transport policies in order to promote active commuting. en
dc.publisher BioMed Central Ltd. en
dc.relation.ispartofseries International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity en
dc.rights Items in ResearchSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Details obtained from en
dc.rights.uri en
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dc.title Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions. en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1186/1479-5868-6-64 en
pubs.begin-page 64 en
pubs.volume 6 en
dc.rights.holder Copyright: the author en
dc.identifier.pmid 19765318 en en
pubs.end-page 74 en
dc.rights.accessrights en
pubs.subtype Article en
pubs.elements-id 87780 en Medical and Health Sciences en Population Health en Epidemiology & Biostatistics en
pubs.record-created-at-source-date 2010-09-01 en
pubs.dimensions-id 19765318 en

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